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Tuesday, August 20, 2013

Who is the Founder of Bharatiya Janta Party (BJP)

The Bharatiya Janta Party is one of the two main leading National parties in Indian Politics. It is the second largest party in India with respect to number of MPs it has in the Parliament of India.

Lotus Symbol
BJP Symbol Lotus
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History of Bharatiya Janta Party
Dr. Shyama Prasad Mookerjee founded Bharatiya Jana Sangh in 1951 against the ideology of Indian National Congress. Its main aim was to promote national integrity, unity and culture of India.

Shyama Prasad Mookerjee
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Dr. Mookerjee passed away shortly in 1953 in prison during agitation demanding effective integration of Jammu and Kashmir in India, and the Bhartiya Jana Sangh fell under the leadership of young leader Deendayal Upadhyaya, who lead the party for 15 years.

Deendayal Upadhyaya
Image by Daniash007 - License CC BY 3.0
The party played a key role during Emergency period and thousands of its leaders were imprisoned during the agitation. In 1977, Bhartiya Jana Sangh merged along with many political parties to form Janta Party and formed government under the leadership of Morarji Desai. The government of Janta Party did not last long and the coalition disintegrated.

Founder of Bharatiya Janta Party
In 1980, the leaders and workers of Bhartiya Jana Sangh, founded the current day Bharatiya Janta Party (BJP) and Atal Bihari Vajpayee became the first President of the Party.
Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Image by Ricardo Stuckert/PR - License CC BY 3.0
List of Presidents of BJP

  • Atal Bihari Vajpayee - 1980 -1986
  • Lal Krishna Advani - 1986 - 1991
Lal Krishna Advani
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  • Murli Manohar Joshi - 1991 - 1993
  • Lal Krishna Advani - 1993 - 1998
  • Kushabhau Thakre - 1998 - 2000
  • Bangaru Laxman - 2000 - 2001
  • Jana Krishnamurthy - 2001 - 2002
Jana Krishnamurthy
Jana Krishnamurthy
Image by Me - Public Domain

  • Venkaiah Naidu - 2002 - 2004
  • Lal Krishna Advani - 2004 - 2006
  • Rajnath Singh - 2006 - 2009
  • Nitin Gadkari - 2009 - 2013
  • Rajnath Singh - 2013 - Present

Monday, September 19, 2011

Who is Comptroller and Auditor General of India

Comptroller and Auditor General of India is the Supreme Audit Institution of India.

The Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG) is appointed by President of India under Article 148(1) of the Constitution of India.

Article 148(1) of the Constitution of India states that “There shall be a Comptroller and Auditor-General of India who shall be appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal and shall only be removed from office in like manner and on the like grounds as a Judge of the Supreme Court.”

Comptroller and Auditor General of India Logo
Public Domain Image - Government of India
Duties & Power
The Comptroller and Auditor General of India has been given rights under Article 149 to check and maintain the accounts of Central Government as well as states. Under Article 150 Comptroller and Auditor General also has the right and duty to prescribe to the President of India on how the accounts should be maintained.

Article 149 of the Constitution of India states that “The Comptroller and Auditor-General (CAG) shall perform such duties and exercise such powers in relation to the accounts of the Union and of the States and of any other authority or body as may be prescribed by or under any law made by Parliament and, until provision in that behalf is so made, shall perform such duties and exercise such powers in relation to the accounts of the Union and of the States as were conferred on or exercisable by the Auditor-General of India immediately before the commencement of this Constitution in relation to the accounts of the Dominion of India and of the Provinces respectively.”

Article 150 of the Constitution of India states that “The accounts of the Union and of the States shall be kept in such form as the President may, 2[on the advice of] the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India, prescribe.”

Under Article 151 of the Constitution of India, The Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) of submits reports the reports related to Union Government to the President of India (who then causes it to be laid in Parliament) and reports related to State Governments to Governor of the State (who then causes it to be laid in respective assemblies).

Vision of CAG
The vision of CAG as mentioned in the charter is:-
“The vision of SAI (Supreme Audit Authority of India i.e. CAG) represents what we aspire to become; We strive to be global leader and initiator of national and international best practices in public sector auditing and accounting and recognised for independent, credible, balanced and timely reporting on public finance and governance.”

Mission of CAG
The mission of CAG as mentioned in the charter is:-
“Our mission enunciates our current role and describes what we are doing today: Mandated by the Constitution of India, we promote accountability, transparency and good governance through high quality auditing and accounting and provide independent assurance to our stakeholders, the Legislature, the Executive and the Public, that public funds are being used efficiently and for intended purposes.”

Provisions governing CAG
  • Article 148, 149, 150 and 151 of the Constitution of India
  • CAG’s Duties, Power and Conditions of Service Act, 1971
  • Regulations on Audit and Account, 2007
  • CAT’s Judgement order dated 30/03/2011
  • Judgement by High Court of New Delhi dated 27th Jan, 2010

The tenure of CAG’s office is 6 years or attainment of age of 65 or resignation in writing to President of India whichever is earlier.

The CAG is paid salary equal to the Judge of Supreme Court of India.

Oath of CAG
Under Article 148 (2) the CAG of India has to take the following oath as mentioned in Schedule 3 of the Constitution of India:-
“I, A.B., having been Comptroller and Auditor-General of India do swear in the name of God that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the Constitution of India as by law established, that I will uphold the sovereignty and integrity of India, that I will duly and faithfully and to the best of my ability, knowledge and judgment perform the duties of my office without fear or favour, affection or ill-will and that I will uphold the Constitution and the laws.”

Other provisions governing CAG
  • The Comptroller and Auditor General of India is not eligible for any further office after retirement in either State Government or Union Government under Article 148(4) of the Constitution.148(4) of the Constitution.
  • The CAG is the Head of Indian Audit and Accounts Department.
  • List of Comptroller and Auditor Generals of India
List of CAG's of Independent India
  • V Narhari Rao (1948-1954) (First CAG of Independent India)
  • A. K. Chanda (1954 - 1960)
  • A. K. Roy (1960 - 1966)
  • S. Ranganathan (1966 - 1972)
  • A. Baksi (1972 -1978)
  • Gian Prakash (1978 - 1984)
  • T. N. Chaturvedi (1984 - 1990)
  • C. G. Somiah (1990 - 1996)
  • V. K. Shunglu (1996 - 2002)
  • V. N. Kaul (2002 - 2008)
  • Vinod Rai (2008 - 2013)
  • Shashi Kant Sharma (2013 - Present)

Related Links

Thursday, September 15, 2011

Who designed the Rupee symbol

After 63 years of independence, on 26th January, 2010 through notification F.No.F.No.03/17/10-Cy of Department of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Finance, Government of India signed by Mr.Sushil Kumar, Under Secretary to the Government of India - the biggest democracy of the World – India gets symbol for its currency.

The selection of the Symbol for Rupee was made through Competition announced by Department of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Finance, Government of India through notification No.10/8/06/- Cy.II dated February, 2009 signed by Mr. B. S. Rawat, Deputy Secretary, Government of India.

The Competition
The Circular stated “Major currencies of the world e.g. US Dollar, Pound Sterling, Yen and the Euro have an Identification symbol. The Government of India also proposes to have a symbol for the Indian Rupee to be selected through public competition. Accordingly, all Resident Indians (both Professional and Non-professionals) are hereby invited to participate in a Competition for design of the ‘Symbol for Indian Rupee’”
Entries were invited along with a draft of `500 along with design, explanation of how it represents Indian Rupee and bio-data of the applicant with passport size photograph attached. The last date for the submission was 15th April, 2009 before 1300 hours.

Guidelines: -
  • The symbol had to be in A4 size paper in black and white print.
  • The symbol along with exact size had to be submitted.
  • The symbol had to represent the cultural and historical ethos of the country
  • The size of the symbol had to be greater than 232 cms.
  • It had to be in Indian National Language script.
  • It had to be original work.
  • It could be individual submission or team submission.
  • The maximum number of entry limit was 2.
  • The symbol becomes IPR of Government of India.

Selection Process: -
  • All entries were examined by Jury of: -3 members from – Sir JJ Institute of Applied Arts, National Institute of Design, Lalit Kala Academy and Indira Gandhi Centre for Art & Culture; 3 members from Government of India and 2 members from Reserve Bank of India
  • Five members were shortlisted and asked to made presentation before the jury, the selected 5 members also received `25,000 as prize money.
  • Jury finally selected one winner and symbol for currency. The winner received `250,000 and honor to be called as the designer of symbol of currency of India.
Shortlist: -
Out of more than 25,000 entries received five finalists were shortlisted:-

5 shortlisted rupee symbol
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  • Nondita Correa-Mehrotra: - Nondita, architect from Harvard University and also lecturer of Architectural design at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, wrote to Reserve Bank of India in 2005 for Rupee symbol, but did not get any response. When the competition was announced, she was very happy about it.  
  • Shahrukh J. Irani: - Shahrukh, a graduate from JJ school of Arts felt honour of getting selected in the top 5 was huge, and considered it to be one of the most important projects of his life.
  • Shibin KK: - Shibin works as a teacher at Government higher secondary school in Kerala, and has a vast experience in designing logos for companies. Shibin wishes to establish himself as a branding expert.
  • Hitesh Padmashali: - Hitesh is a creative director at JWT and has been very creative since his school days.
The Winner
D Udaya Kumar: -
D Udaya Kumar was declared the final winner of the competition, and it is his symbol that is being represented all over the world as India’s growing power.

Education: -
B. Arch, School of Architecture and Planning, Anna University
M. Des., Industrial Design Centre, IIT Bombay
Ph. D. Design, IIT Bombay
Assistant Professor – Department of Design (IIT Ghuwati)

Udaya Kumar on winning the competition “My design is based on the Tricolour, with two lines at the top and white space in between. I wanted the symbol for the Rupee to represent the Indian flag. It is a perfect blend of Indian and Roman letters: a capital 'R', and Devanagari 'ra', which represent rupiya to appeal to international and Indian audiences. I worked on it for few months and made numerous designs. Finally, I shortlisted 8 to 10 designs and then refined them further till I got this one."

The Symbol
The Rupee symbol is the fifth currency in the world to get its distinct identity after US Dollar, British Pound-Sterling, Euro and Japanese Yen.

Rupee Symbol
Related: -
Who signs currency notes in India

Wednesday, September 14, 2011

Who is the Chairman of AMFI (Association of Mutual Funds in India)

AMFI (Association of Mutual Funds in India) is the apex body that represents all the Mutual Fund companies in India. It was established on August 22, 1945 and currently all 43 Asset Management Companies that are registered with SEBI (Stock Exchange Board of India) are its members.

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The current chairman of AMFI is Mr. Milind Barve.

Milind Barve
Education: -
Mr. Barve is a Chartered Accountant – Associate Member of Institute of Chartered Accountants of India. He also holds a Bachelors degree in commerce.

Positions Held
  • Head of Marketing for retail deposit products & Investment Advisory relationships – Commenwealth Equity Fund & Invesco India Growth Fund
  • General Manager – Treasury Department – HDFC Ltd. (14 years)
Current Positions
  • Chairman – AMFI
  • MD & Director – HDFC Asset Management Company
  • Member of Board of Director – Other Companies

Related: -

Who are the Nobel Laureates of India

Nobel Prize named after Alfred Nobel, established through his will of 1895 and first given in 1901 are the most prestigious prize given to, for outstanding achievement in the field of Physics, Chemistry, Medicine, Literature and Peace.

Nobel Prize
Alfred Nobel
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There have been 4 Great citizens of India who have been bestowed with prestigious Nobel Prize:-

Rabindranath Tagore (1861 – 1941)
The Nobel Prize in Literature 1913 awarded for Gitanjali : Song Offerings (1912)
Citizenship: - India

Rabindranath Tagore
Rabindranath Tagore
Image by Cea - License CC BY 2.0

Chandrashekhar Venkataraman (C. V. Raman) (1888 – 1970)
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1930 for “Work on scattering of light – Raman Scattering and discovery of effect – Raman Effect”
Citizenship: - India
C V Raman
C V Raman
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Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhui (Mother Teresa) (1910 – 1997)
The Nobel Peace Prize 1979
Citizenship: - Indian (Born in Yogoslavia, Parents from Albania)
Mother Teresa
Image by Peta_de_estlan - License CC BY 2.0
Amartya Sen (B – 1933)
The Sveriges Riksbnak Prize in Economic Sciences 1998 for contribution in Welfare Economics
Citizenship: - India
Amartya Sen
Amartya Sen
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Monday, September 12, 2011

Who is considered as the father of Space Program in India

Dr. Vikram Sarabhai – Father of Space program in India

“If ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization) is doing well and has a great vision, it is only because the vision of its founder (Vikram Sarabhai) is shared by one and all in the organization” 
                                                                              - ISRO chairman Dr. K Radhakrishnan.

Dr. Vikram Sarabhai (1919 – 1971) was a visionary, innovator, industrialist and scientist who is credited with getting India to space. Dr. Sarabhai was born in family of industrialist Ambalal Sarabhai and Sarla Devi.

It was with Vikram Sarabhai’s tremendous effort that India started space program and today has reached great heights in space research. Dr. Sarabhai emphasized the importance of Space program for India stating -     

“There are some who question the relevance of space activities in a developing nation. To us, there is no ambiguity of purpose. We do not have the fantasy of competing with the economically advanced nations in the exploration of the moon or the planets or manned space-flight. But, we are convinced that if we are to play a meaningful role nationally, and in the community of nations, we must be second to none in the application of advanced technologies to the real problems of man and society”.

This statement shows how he saw future and today the importance of space mission in India is clearly evident with its growth and requirements.

Vikram Sarabhai did his schooling in private school run by his parents “Retreat”. After receiving good schooling education and graduation from Gujarat College, Ahmedabad; Sarabhai went on to study at Cambridge university and earned tripods degree from Sr. John’s college, 1940. As the world war had started, Dr. Sarabhai returned to India and joined as a research scholar under Sir C. V. Raman (First Bharat Ratna Awardee). In 1945, he returned to Cambridge and was awarded Ph. D. in 1947.

Marriage and Children
Dr. Sarabhai married Mrinalini Sarabhai in 1942. Dr. Sarabhai has two childrens – Kartikeya Sarabhai and Mallika Sarabhai

Physical Research Laboratory (PRL)
In November 1947, Dr. Sarabhai established PRL in a room in M. G. Science institute of Ahmedabad (Gujarat). It got support from Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and Department of Atomic Energy.

Rocket Launching Stations (TERLS)
Vikram Sarabhi set up first Rocket Launching Station (TERLS) with support from Dr. Homi Bhabha at Thumba near Thiruvanthapuram. The reason for establishing the station at Thumba was that it was close to the equator. The first rocked with sodium vapour was launched in 1963. In 1965, U.N. General Assembly gave recognition to TERLS as international facility.

India Space Program
Public Domain Image - Government of India
Dr. Vikram Sarabhai played a tremendous role in development of some of the premier institutions of the country –
  • Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
  • Physical Research Laboratory (PRL)
  • Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad (IIM – A)
  • Community Science Centre, Ahmedabad (CSC)
  • Uranium Corporation of India Limited, Bihar (UCIL)
  • Variable Energy Cyclotoron Project, Kolkata
  • Faster Breeder Test Reactor, Kalpakkam
  • Space Applications Centre, Ahmedabad
  • Darpan Academy of Performing Arts, Ahmedabad
  • Sarabhai Chemicals
  • Electronics Corporation of India Limited, Hyderabad (ECIL)          
  • Centre for Environmental Planning & Technology (CEPT)
  • National Institute of Design (NID)
  • Ahmedabad Textiles Industry’s Research Association (ATIRA)
  • Blind People’s Association, Ahmedabad

Awards & Honours
  • Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Award (1962)
  • President – Physics section (Indian Science Congress) (1962)
  • President of Atomic Energy Commission (1966)
  • Padma Bhushan (1966)
  • President of General Conference of I.A.E.A., Verina (1970)
  • Vice-President of 4th U.N. conference on “Peaceful use of Atomic Energy” (1971)
  • Padma Vibhushan (1972 – posthumous)
  • International Astronomical Union, Sydney named Moon Crater BESSEL in the Sea of Serenity as Sarabhai Crater (1974)
Father of Indian Space Program
Vikram Sarabhai
Public Domain Image
Vikram Sarabhai, a life by Amrita Singh

Vikram Sarabhai passed away on 31st December, 1971; but his legacy to the nation is immortal and here to stay forever.

 “There is no leader and there are no led. A leader, if one chooses to identify one, has to be a cultivator rather than a manufacturer. He has to provide the soil and overall climate and  the environment in which the seed can grow. One wants permissive individuals who do not  have compelling need to reassure themselves that they are leaders”
  – Vikram A. Sarabhai

Sunday, September 11, 2011

Who receives Bharat Ratna Award

Bharat Ratna is the highest civilian award, awarded for highest degree of service to the nation in the field of Art, Literature, Science and Public service. It is awarded irrespective of age, sex, religion, occupation or position. The Prime Minister of India himself makes recommendation to the President for awarding Bharat Ratna. It is not required to award Bharat Ratna every year.There is annual restriction of 3 awardees in a year.

Bharat Ratna was introduced in 1954 through President’s Sectarian Notification (No. 1 - Pres/55 dated 8-1-1955).

Bharat Ratna rank and precedence
As per President’s Sectarian Notification (No. 33 – Pres/79 dated 26-7-1979) the Holders of Bharat Ratna holds the 7th Rank in the country. It should be noted that Bharat Ratna holds higher rank than Judges of Supreme Court, Chairman of UPSC, Chief Election Commissioner, CAG, Ministers of State of Union, Attorney General of India, Cabinet Secretary of India and others.

Tamra Patra
Bharat Ratna
Public Domain Image

Under Article 18 (Abolition of titles) of the constitution of India, no citizen is allowed to use such title of honours before their name.

The award does not carry any money grant. The winner of the award receives a Sanad (certificate) signed by the President and a medallion. The original medallion was supposed to be 35 mm diameter circular gold medallion with sun embossed and Bharat Ratna inscribed in Devnagari script above a sun and floral wreath below the sun. The reverse side was supposed to have state emblem and motto “Satyamev Jayate”. The current design is which was altered after a year, the reverse side of the Bharat Ratna is unchanged, but the front side is altered. The medallion is of the shape of Banayan Tree Leaf with “Bharat Ratna” inscribed on it with Devnagri script. There is also a 51 mm wide ribbon attached to the award.

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose were awarded Bharat Ratna posthumously in the year 1992, but a petition was filed in the supreme court challenging his death – Government could not produce any conclusive evidence of the same and hence the award was withdrawn.

Declined the award
Abul Kalam Azad, India’s first education minister declined Bharat Ratna stating that those who select the awardees should themselves be not awarded. Abul Kalam Azad though were awarded Bharat Ratna posthumously in 1992.

Why did Mahatma Gandhi not receive Bharat Ratna?
In the original notification of Bharat Ratna, there was no clause of awarding Bharat Ratna posthumously, so Mahatma Gandhi were not awarded with Bharat Ratna.

First recipient
Shri Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman were the first recipient of Bharat Ratna in 1954

Non-Indian recipient
There are two non-Indian recipient of Bharat Ratna –
  • In 1987, a Pakistani citizen, Khan Abdul Ghafar Khan were awarded Bharat Ratna.
  • In 1990, Former South Africa President Nelson Mandela was awarded with Bharat Ratna.

Late Bhimsen Joshi Gururaj Joshi - Arts : 2008

Kumari Lata Dinanath Mangeshkar - Arts : 2001

Late. Ustad Bismillah Khan - Arts : 2001

Prof. Amartya Sen - Literature & Education : 1999

Lokpriya Gopinath (posth.) Bordoloi - Public Affairs : 1999
Loknayak Jayprakash (Posth.) Narayan - Public Affairs : 1999

Pandit Ravi Shankar - Arts : 1999

Shri Chidambaram Subramaniam - Public Affairs : 1998

Smt. M.S. Subbulakshmi - Arts : 1998

Shri (Dr.) A.P.J. Abdul Kalam - Science & Engineering. : 1997

Smt. Aruna Asaf (Posth.) Ali - Public Affairs : 1997

Shri Gulzari Lal Nanda - Public Affairs : 1997

Shri Jehangir Ratanji Dadabhai Tata - Trade & Industry : 1992

Shri Maulana Abul Kalam Azad - Public Affairs : 1992

Shri Satyajit Ray - Arts : 1992

Shri Morarji Ranchhodji Desai - Public Affairs : 1991

Shri Rajiv Gandhi - Public Affairs : 1991

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel - Public Affairs : 1991

Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar - Public Affairs : 1990

Dr. Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela - Public Affairs : 1990

Shri Marudur Gopalan Ramachandran - Public Affairs : 1988

Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan - Social Work : 1987 : Pakistan

Shri Acharya Vinoba Bhave - Social Work : 1983 : India : Maharashtra

Mother Mary Teresa Bojaxhiu Teresa - Social Work : 1980

Shri Kumaraswamy Kamraj - Public Affairs : 1976

Shri V.V. Giri - Public Affairs : 1975

Smt. Indira Gandhi - Public Affairs : 1971

Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri - Public Affairs : 1966

Dr. Pandurang Vaman Kane - Social Work : 1963

Dr. Zakir Hussain - Public Affairs : 1963

Dr. Rajendra Prasad - Public Affairs : 1962

Dr. Bidhan Chandra Roy - Public Affairs : 1961

Shri Purushottam Das Tandon - Public Affairs : 1961

Dr. Dhonde Keshav Karve - Social Work : 1958

Pt. Govind Ballabh Pant - Public Affairs : 1957

Dr. Bhagwan Das - Literature & Education : 1955

Shri Jawaharlal Nehru - Public Affairs : 1955

Dr. M. Vivesvaraya - Civil Service : 1955

Shri Chakravarti Rajagopalachari - Public Affairs : 1954

Dr. Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman - Science & Engineering. : 1954

Dr. Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan - Public Affairs : 1954

Living Recipients
  • Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam
  • Shri Ravi Shankar
  • Amartya Sen
  • Lata Mangeshkar
  • Nelson Mandela

Demand for awarding Bharat Ratna
There are various influential demands for awarding Bharat Ratna to certain citizens of the country. Popular demands among those include:-
  • A great section of society is demanding Bharat Ratna for Sachin Tendulkar, the cricketing legend of the country.
  • There is demand for awarding Major Dhyanchand, finest Hockey player India has ever produced with Bharat Ratna award.
  • The demand for awarding Bharat Ratna to Legendary singer Mohammad Rafi is also taking a pace.
  • Bhartiya Janta Party (BJP) has been strongly making a demand for giving Bharat Ratna to former Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee.
  • Current spur in the movement of civil society has also given rise to the demand of Bharat Ratna for Anna Hazare.
  • There is a demand in South India to confer Bharat Ratna to Late Shri Sathya Sai Baba.
  • There is a great support to confer Bharat Ratna to the greatest Ambassador of game of chess and India’s best grand-master Viswanathan Anand

There has been also other demands to award Bharat Ratna for Bhagat Singh, Kashiram Rana, Jyoti Basu, Dilip Kumar, Sam Manekshaw and others.

Saturday, September 10, 2011

Who is Narasimhan Ram

N. Ram or Narasimhan Ram is the current Editor-in-Chief of The Hindu, Frontline, The Hindu Business Line and Sportstar. He is also trustee of Asian School of Jounralism, Chennai.

N. Ram received his Bachelor in arts in the year 1964 from Loyola College, Chennai and went on receive Master’s degree in 1966 from Presidency College, 1966 and M.S. in comparative journalism from Columbia University.

N. Ram is believed to be a left wing ideologist.

He joined “The Hindu” as early in 1977 as Associate editor and climbed to level of Editor-in-Chief today. He became Editor of Hindu on June 27, 2003 replacing his brother N. Ravi.

N. Ram has been in various controversies which includes:-
  • Discontinuation of Bofors investigation in 1989 by then editor G. Kasturi which N. Ram and Chitra Subramanium were aggressively running in the newspaper. N. Ram went into public and criticized his uncle and editor Kasturi for stopping the reports. He also filed a complained against G. Kasturi to the Press council of India. The result of it was N. Ram was removed from the "The Hindu" and made in charge of magazines Frontline and Sportstar and his brother N. Ravi was made Editor.
  • In 2003, The Hindu was alleged to be going too much towards left wing philosophy in its writing, the result - N. Ravi (N. Ram's brother) being replaced as editor and N. Ram made the Editor of Hindu by board of directors.
  • In 2010, brothers of N. Ram, N.Ravi and N. Murali accuses N. Ram of backing away from his promise of retiring in 2009 after turning 65, the controversy spurs and the matter goes to Company Law Board which reinstates N. Murali as MD who was put in charge of circulation after the controversy but does not interfere in the appointments of N. Ram's family members at important positions.
  • N. Ravi brother of N. Ram accuses him of going too soft on A. Raja on 2G scam.

Awards & Recognition
  • B.D. Goenka Award for excellence in Journalism (1989)
  • Asian Investigative Journalist of the Year (1990)
  • Padma Bhushan (1990)
  • National Citizen’s Award (1995)
  • First J.R.D. Tata Award for Business Ethics (2003)
  • Sri Lanka Rathna (2005)
  • Lokmanya Tilak Journalist Award (2010)

Who signs currency notes in India

The currency of India is Rupee. The Reserve Bank of India under section 22 of “The Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934” has the sole rights to issue Currency notes in India. The currency notes issued by RBI are in denominations of 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500 and 1000 and bears the signature of RBI Governor.

Currency Note Signature
Public Domain Image - Property of Government of India

Under section 28 (A) of “The Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934”, only one rupee denominated notes are issued by Central Government. One Rupee note hence bears the signature of Finance Secretary, Government of India.

Signature Currency Notes
Public Domain Image - Property of Government of India
Further Reading:-

Friday, September 9, 2011

Who was the first Inspector General of Forests

Shri Hari Singh were the first Inspector General of forests in 1966. He played a great role in finding of Indian Foreign Service (IFS) in 1966. Hari Singh studied forestry in Edinburg, and joined as forest officer in Bombay Presidency. He also served as the chief conservator of Gujarat and later headed the forest department in the centre. He is also credited with introduction of concept of “Social Forestry” in India. He is considered to be the architect of today’s Forest Administration in India.

Inspector General of Forests
Image by Axel-D Licence CC BY 2.0
Recently a book dedicated to Shri Hari Singh – “Hari Singh: A Life Sketch” was released by DG Forest and Special Secretary to Government of India Dr. P. J. Dilip Kumar.